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院長的話

友朋之慈與分享

The Kindness and Sharing of Friends
Dean’s Talk at the 112-1 Semester Opening Assembly
By Dean Prof. Chao-Shun Kuo


文/雲水書院山長、佛教學院院長
2023/09/20 (112-1 期初全院集合勉勵話語)

慈悲在漢語是一組詞語,梵文可拆在慈與悲兩個概念。慈的梵文是maitrī,意思是對朋友(mitra)要親愛對待;悲karuṇā,對不幸者,要温柔地憐憫。慈悲兩字合起來便被解釋為:拔苦與樂。不過,慈這個字,在中文更常被強調的是「慈孝」:父母對子女之慈,相對的則是子女對父母之孝,這一點與原本梵文偏重朋友之間的親愛關係,有一些微細的區別。

Compassion in Chinese is expressed as a compound word, whereas in Sanskrit, it can be broken down into two concepts: "maitrī" for kindness towards friends (mitra) and "karuṇā" for gentle compassion towards those who are unfortunate. When combined, the two words "慈" and "悲" are interpreted as "removing suffering and bestowing happiness."

However, in Chinese, the term "慈" is often emphasized in the context of "慈孝" (filial piety), referring to the kindness parents show to their children, and the corresponding virtue of children showing filial piety to their parents. This differs slightly from the original Sanskrit focus on affectionate relationships among friends.


本學期雲水書院的教育主題是「分享」,分享即是將美好的事物傳遞給別人,有一句有名的咖啡廣告詞:「好東西要和好朋友分享」,因而特別值得由朋友之間的慈來闡釋這點,。
大家都知道,我們書院中,同學年紀分佈遍及老中青,因此學長卻可能會比學弟妹年輕許多。同學之間碰到這種情況,有時不好意思,便會互稱對方學長。雖然這樣看來,會有點亂了原本入學先後的長幼關係,但從另個角度來看,倒也不失為可發展出平等校園倫理的契機。畢竟學長對學弟妹的照顧,完全不應該變成一種上下的權力關係。

The educational theme for this semester at Yunshui Residential College is "Sharing." Sharing means passing on the goodness to others, as famously expressed in a coffee advertisement slogan: "Good things are meant to be shared with good friends." Therefore, it's particularly relevant to elaborate on this concept through the lens of kindness among friends.

As you all know, in our college, students come from various age groups, with both older and younger peers. Consequently, senior students may actually be much younger in age than their junior counterparts. In situations like this, students may sometimes feel awkward, leading to mutual address as "seniors (xue zhang) " 學長 out of respect. While this might seem to disrupt the traditional hierarchy based on age, it could also serve as an opportunity to foster a sense of equality in our campus ethics. After all, the care provided by senior students to their junior peers should never be turned into a hierarchical power dynamic.

所謂「聞道有先後,術業有專攻」,我們系上許多同學,在進入佛教學系之前,可能早就有許多專業能力,只是因為嚮往佛學,想要專研佛法,因此才前來就讀。這些同學或許在佛學知識的學習經驗是資淺的,但人生的閱歷或者其他專業能力,比起許多學長卻是深厚的。因此,彼此尊重互相學習,是書院生活的重要態度。

The saying goes, "There is a sequence to hearing the Way, and each profession has its specialization." Many of our fellow students in the department may have had various professional skills before entering the Buddhist Studies program. It's just that they were drawn to the study of Buddhism and chose to specialize in it. These students may have relatively limited experience in Buddhist studies, but their life experiences or other professional abilities may be profound compared to many senior students. Therefore, showing mutual respect and learning from each other is an important attitude in our academic community.

我期待每一位同學們,都可以不吝分享自己的知識與經驗,將自己擅長的部分來與人分享。而知識、經驗與能力的分享,既不會損減你原本所具有的,反而是當你越分享就越能深化、精練原本所擁有的。當人人都能分享,每個人都是學長,人人互相成就,書院生活也就會越來越具有善意與互相尊重的平等氛圍。我們與其高談佈施之功德,倒不如由友朋之慈的分享做起,這也是我們的佛教行持課程中,何以會有「服務實作」這個部分的原因。

I look forward to each and every one of our students for not hesitating to share their knowledge and experiences, and to contribute what they excel in with other fields. Sharing knowledge, experiences, and abilities does not diminish what you already possess; instead, it deepens and refines your existing skills and knowledge. When everyone can share, everyone becomes a senior, and as we mutually uplift each other, our academic community will foster an atmosphere of goodwill and mutual respect.
Rather than just discussing the merits of generosity, let us start with the kindness of sharing among friends. This is also the reason why we have the "Service Practicum" component in our practice course.





郭朝順院長談「瞋心與忍辱行」
Anger and the Practice of Forbearance

文/郭朝順院長
2023/05/24 (111-2 期末全院集合勉勵話語)

諸位來到學院過團體生活,團體生活中難免有許多不如意,例如:與寮友生活作息相違,行堂典座組員常常遲到、未到或者拖累工作等等。前者我們除了彼此體諒,也應該要協商、溝通,設法取得共識;對於後者,則應提醒、規勸,讓每個人將大眾的事務放在心上,不要將服務大眾之事,作成妨礙大眾之事。
All of you at the college, in the course of experiencing communal living, have likely encountered difficulties, such as (i) roommates with conflicting living habits and (ii) cooking-serving rotation team members being late, absent, problematic, etc. For the former (i) kind of conflict, in addition to mutual empathic understanding, we should do our best to negotiate, communicate, and reach a consensus; for the latter (ii) kind of conflict, it is necessary to remind and encourage everyone to sincerely respect communal duties and to avoid degrading otherwise laudable service to the community into subpar disservice.

對不如意之事,人都難免會生起怨懟,乃至起了瞋心。就心理學的講法,人不該壓抑情緒,才不會產生過度的壓抑,可是佛教卻教我們修忍辱行,這二者之間會不會產生對立?
People inevitably develop resentment and even anger toward disagreeable situations. According to psychology, one should not repress emotions in order to avoid dysregulation, but Buddhism teaches us to practice forbearance. Are these two notions in conflict?

怨瞋有個基本特性,它總是在他人傷害或者侵犯我時出現。即便如路上的狗兒,只要覺得自己的地盤受到威脅,便會吠叫示威、露齒威脅,這便是捍衛自己地盤的本能。所以,如果「我」的界限很大,那你便會不時感到旁人時時在威脅、侵犯,也就時時會起瞋心;如果「我」的界限小一點,你便較不易感到被冒犯。到了「無我」時,便是完全不會因自覺被冒犯而生起瞋心。
Resentment, or anger, has a fundamental characteristic: it arises when we perceive others to harm 'me.'  Even street dogs that sense encroachment of their territory will bark and bare their teeth as an instinctive, primal defense response. Similarly, if the territory of your 'self' is very large, then you will constantly feel threatened or impinged and get angry often; if the territory of your 'self' is smaller, you are less likely to get offended. When there is 'no-self', there is no longer any possibility of anger arising from perceived intrusions.

可是還有另一種瞋心會出現的狀況:雖然未必受到傷害或者威脅,但若有人可以歸咎的話,自己便可以理直氣壯地宣稱自己沒有錯。這依然是一種自我保護的自然反應。由此來看,瞋心的出現始終和自我防衛之本能反應息息相關。
But there is another situation in which anger may arise: shifting blame to someone else (despite the absence of any actual harm or threat) allows us to self-righteously proclaim our own inculpability. Such scapegoating is yet another instinctual ego-preservation response. From this perspective, the emergence of anger is always closely related to ego-defensive instinct.

是以,心理學所謂的不要壓抑情緒,便是不要否認自己有這樣的本能,面對它才有可能超越它,更何況,旁人犯過卻由我承擔,確實是不公平的。所以,我認為忍辱行不是要人否定情緒,也不是要人忍受不公,而是要人認知情緒並且超越情緒的本能反應,超越自我防衛的心態,以堅毅之力承擔在不善因緣狀況下所產生的壓力,同時處理好眼前的因緣。
As such, when psychology says not to suppress emotions, it is not to deny that we all have such instinct. Only by acknowledging our ego can we begin to transcend it. To take responsibility for others' faults is indeed unfair. So, I believe that the practice of forbearance does not require people to deny their emotions or endure senseless injustice, but rather to recognize their emotions and to transcend instinctive reactions, transcend our habitual self-defensive mentalities, and bear the stress of adverse situations with grit while skillfully handling the task at hand.

當他人犯錯殃及我時,我可以對他表示對此行為的不認可,但不要僅停留在為自己打抱不平,或只是為自己了出一口氣的層次,而是為了引導向善,為了利益大眾。這時候,忍辱行除了堅毅的承擔外,同時也就包含了,敢不敢將責備求善的規勸,用不帶瞋心且是確能引導向善的方式,宣之於口的智慧與勇氣之修練。
When others' mistakes implicate me, I can express my disapproval of their actions to them, but I don't have to stay simply at the level of vindicating myself from undue grievance or venting my frustration: I can have the greater motivation of wanting to positively influence others to bring out their innate potentials for virtue so as to ultimately benefit the greater community. At this point, the practice of forbearance includes not only tenacity and fortitude, but also the courage to do what is not easy but is right: to correct others so they can improve. To frankly communicate what is necessary without anger is a practice of wisdom and courage that can genuinely benefit others.

忍辱行不是要讓自己成了受氣包,令不正義不公平的事情恣意發生,忍辱行是為了令人有堅毅承擔的力量,以及超越自衛本能的氣度,並有著頂住壓力的勇氣,以及解決問題的慈悲與智慧。因此,忍辱行中的無我,便是徹底超越狹隘自我且勸導眾生行善的修行,正如《法華經》常不輕菩薩之甘願承擔眾生的詈罵永不退轉一般。
The practice of forbearance is not about making ourselves into submissive enablers, pushovers, or martyrs and allowing injustice and wrongdoing to proliferate. The practice of forbearance is about inspiring ourselves and others to be strong and enduring, transcending our limited ego-preservation instincts, and developing the courage to withstand pressures as well as the compassion and wisdom to solve problems. Therefore, the practice of egolessness, which underlies the practice of forbearance, completely transcends ego's limitations and exhorts everyone towards their innate potentials for virtue, just as in the Lotus Sūtra, the Bodhisatva Sadāparibhūta (Never Disparaging) never regressed in his willingness to honor sentient beings despite their constant disrespect of him.

佛經中忍辱仙人的故事十分有名,不過,正如我以往說過,佛經不能只從字面上讀,大家若依上述的說法來讀,也許會讀出不一樣的內涵。祝大家吉祥如意。
The story of Kṣāntirṣi (who endured senseless mutilation of his body) in the Mahāyānasūtras is quite famous, but as I have said before, the Buddhist sūtras cannot be read only literally. If you read with the above-stated points in mind, you might understand another level of meaning. I wish you all the best!




我們為什麼選擇艱難的路—
談談佛教學系行門書院教育的理念

文/郭朝順院長
2022/3/3 (期初全院集合勉勵話語)

寒假在家中看了一部日劇:「先に生まれただけの僕」(中譯:不過是先出生的我);日文漢字的「先生」的就是老師的意思,所以這劇名在玩一個雙關語的梗:先生(老師)不過是先出生的人罷了。劇中描述一個原本的企業集團菁英,因公司內鬥,而被派去當集團所屬的中學校長。雖然他不懂教育,但卻因為他的熱情,感動了校內原本冷眼旁觀、等看笑話的老師們,進而感動學生,最後逆轉了學校的現況。

劇中最令人熱血的是,學生們因為感受到老師們的熱情與用心,主動到校外去向人推薦自己學校,邀請初中生及家長們前來參加學校說明會,並展現出充滿自信的節目表演,最後合唱校歌那一幕,感動了全體師生及參觀的學生及家長們。當我看到這一幕時,我就跟我太太說:如果學生沒有認同老師以及學校,是不可能作這些事的。然而,這樣主動的熱情,我卻在佛教學系的同學身上看到許多次,而且不限於招生。

我曾多次和同學們到全台各道場作招生說明,由同學現身說法,告訴大眾他們在佛教學系的學習經驗與感動;我也看到許多同學,即便課業忙碌,他們還是願意撥出時間,為系上製作各種宣傳海報、文宣;我也看到明明行堂、典座才忙完的同學,因為為街友送暖活動,未稍事休息便一起衝到台北或者羅東,直到深夜。我也常常聽到學校各單位誇獎我們的學生認真主動,因此樂意找系上學生工讀;最近也聽到回山實習的單位主管告訴我們,歡迎同學畢業後,回去他們單位任職。這便是我們為何選擇一艱難的道路,堅持實施行門書院教育的原因。
現今社會流行的常是「輕鬆自在」的道路,講求「作自己」;在佛陀的教誨之中,卻認為一切痛苦的根源,就在「我執」,因此佛教與世間法在這一點上,便似乎會產生對立。不過,如果深入來理解的話,我們應該會知道「作自己」與「去我執」並不見得會對立。會對立的是,把「輕鬆自在」當作是「自己」,卻沒想到,想要「輕鬆自在」的念頭,很可能是因為自己的業習,諸如:不想受到規矩束縛、不想聽人教導規勸、不想自我精進、不想為人服務、不想多事麻煩、不想要改變等等。當一個人不作任何改變,自然是「輕鬆自在」地「作自己」。

如各位所知,書院教育是與行門的「佛教行持」課結合在一起,因此我將之合稱「行門書院教育」。這個課程共分成四個部分:1佛門基本知識(包括佛教禮儀、法會實務、禪堂規約、基礎禪修等);2修持實踐(共住、共食、共學與日常作務,以及禪淨法門);3生活文化講座(各種演講、社團活動、工作坊);4服務實作(系學會、研究生學會、新聞公關、圖書管理、網頁維護等各組)。我是這個設計的始作俑者,因此可以說明這課程設計的基本精神。
這雖只是每學期一學分的院級必修課程,但幾乎動用了全系的老師,不論規劃或者執行,都是全系老師共同參與的。因為我們認為,除了書本的學問外,於事中磨錬出關懷他人、為人服務的態度,以及合作共學、相互成就的能力,這是教育中尤為重要且能受用一生之事。而且這也符合星雲大師所常強調的「我在眾中」,百丈禪師「一日不作一日不食」,以及菩薩道之「慈悲利生」的精神。

教育不是只為了填塞知識或訓練謀生的技術而已,對佛教教育而言更是如此,故尤其重要的是,先求正知正見的養成,如此才能運用所學來利益眾生。諸位都是佛教學系的學生,這一點應該是很容易理會的。尤當諸位身為佛教徒,受持了佛教戒律,即當知戒律以及一切規矩,都是為了調伏自己往習既有的業力之身,因而主動持守的。由於業身的淨化,故我們可以逐漸獲得定力,有了定力便應開發智慧。這戒定慧三學,是佛陀自古傳下的解脫法門,我們便是將這個法門,用來設計行門書院教育的種種制度。目的便是要,透過生活修持實踐之遵守,先學會行堂典座以及種種作務的規矩,然後不畏事繁而穩定自己的心行;在服務實作中,學會如何處理事務的各種能力與智慧;生活講座是用以開拓生活及生命的視野,社團活動則是用以涵養自己的品味、眼光與胸襟;凡此諸種種,也皆可與佛門知識,以及系上老師所教授的諸部經論相互印證。

各位同學應該知道,學習佛法是艱難的,且要殊勝因緣才能獲得機會。各位既然當初選擇成為佛教學系的學生,想必當時也都知道,我們有種種共住、共食、共學的規矩,現在再將這些規矩的設計原因說明清楚,是想讓各位了解,所有的設計都不是為了為難各位,減省經費或勞務人力,而是為了令諸位道業增長。如果大家更了解教育的設計用心,便可以用學習的心態,去體驗在每個行動中的心行變化,從而更堅定作為修行人的自己(而不是輕鬆自在的自己)的願行。

大學部的有位同學,上學期作了一件令我相當感動的學習實驗,他試著要練習我在教授《華嚴經.淨行品》中所說的,菩薩應時時以眾生為念,因此試著在作任何事時,儘量以「當願眾生」來作發心。經過了一段時間的練習後,他告訴我,雖然他無法時時作到「當願眾生」的發心,但這個修持實驗已改變了他,甚至救了他,令他更勇敢主動、也更樂觀地承擔生活以及工作,也因此他參與了以前不敢參與的系學會工作,樂意為系上同學服務。聽到他的例子,印證了「先生不過是先出生而已」的說法,而這也是我們何以選擇這條艱難道路,堅持行門書院教育的理由。期待我們師生之間、同學之間,能夠成為彼此的善知識,永遠共學互成、常處眾中,精進彼此之道業慧命。




【菩薩行與工作禪】


文/郭朝順院長(任期110學年度-)
 
佛光山教團無論僧俗,給人的第一印象便是,每個人總是自動自發、辛勤忙碌地工作,為佛教、為利益眾生而工作。自從2016年我來到佛光大學佛教學系任教後,也在佛教學系的教育中看到這個精神,讓我印象十分深刻,也深深覺得這是我們能夠經提供給學生一生受用的教育,這可能比起知識教育更為影響深遠。

目前一般的大學教育,雖然也會倡導品德教育,但困難的是,品德很難通過知識灌輸、道德推理來教導,而是必須經由日常生活中對於可被視為典範的人物,藉由身教來令學生感悟,這才能讓學生自動自發,由內而外真誠地實踐道德。然而,一般大學教授固然是知識菁英、專家學者,但並不是聖人,也從來沒有被訓練如何進行品德教育,幸而佛教學系有來自佛光山的生活老師,將佛光山的工作實踐態度帶入佛教學系的教育之中,而且總是以身作則地示範如何行堂典座、如何應對進退、如何發心服務,於是此一身教為主的生活教育精神遂得以在佛教學系的教育中逐漸紮根展現。

佛光山努力工作的道風,是自唐代百丈懷海禪師「一日不作一日不息」的農禪修行方法而來,這和崇玄論道或者以清寂之美為悟的道風不同,其重點便在於對於煩雜的事務,或者眾人避之不及的卑賤勞務,要毫不遲疑、挽起衣䄂地「作事去!」
「作事去!」我也將之稱為「工作禪」。有人或許輕視這個說法,以為沒有高深內涵,或者以為這是為讓學生免費勞務的藉口,或者以為這是領取系上佛學菁英獎學金的交換代價;可是若就佛教教義來看,「作事去!」正是把濟度一切眾生的菩薩行,在生活的時時處處當下實踐,因為對菩薩而言,如果連生命都願意布施給眾生而心生歡喜,何以卻連眼前的工作卻不願認真去做?

品德教育是一種經由熏習而內化的過程,系上教授們,絕不是完全䄂手不管品德,而是教授的工作便是認真教授自己的專業知識,精進自身的研究,認真輔導每個學生,以提升學生求學態度以及專業知識,進而協助學生改善未來的生活與生命。當我們的教授與生活導師每日致力於教導學生的工作,也時時以學生為念,這也就體現了「作事去!」的精神。

然而,教育現場中,師生都不是聖人,故不論教育者或者學習者,都會有感到挫折的時刻,是以工作禪的精神,即要我們在因為挫折而興起煩惱時,觀照自心放下煩惱,繼續努力工作,並求不忘當初從事教育或者前來學習的初心;校園之中,師生若能彼此包容,互為增上,自然可以形成一良好的學風。

工作禪的修行有兩個簡單要點:一是面對工作,當下提起;一是因工作而生的煩惱,立即放下。如果我們時時皆能如此,便是在工作中行禪。當然,這時也切莫忘記,一切工作皆是為了以利益包含自己在內的一切眾生而作,利益眾生即為供養未來諸佛的菩薩行,而大眾和合增上方能嚴淨此土成就佛土。《維摩經》中舍利弗要經由佛力才看到佛土本清淨,但是以工作禪的角度來說,便會要舍利弗「做事去!」