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院长的话

友朋之慈与分享

The Kindness and Sharing of Friends
Dean’s Talk at the 112-1 Semester Opening Assembly
By Dean Prof. Chao-Shun Kuo


文/云水书院山长、佛教学院院长
2023/09/20 (112-1 期初全院集合勉励话语)

慈悲在汉语是一组词语,梵文可拆在慈与悲两个概念。慈的梵文是maitrī,意思是对朋友(mitra)要亲爱对待;悲karuṇā,对不幸者,要温柔地怜悯。慈悲两字合起来便被解释为:拔苦与乐。不过,慈这个字,在中文更常被强调的是「慈孝」:父母对子女之慈,相对的则是子女对父母之孝,这一点与原本梵文偏重朋友之间的亲爱关系,有一些微细的区别。

Compassion in Chinese is expressed as a compound word, whereas in Sanskrit, it can be broken down into two concepts: "maitrī" for kindness towards friends (mitra) and "karuṇā" for gentle compassion towards those who are unfortunate. When combined, the two words "慈" and "悲" are interpreted as "removing suffering and bestowing happiness."

However, in Chinese, the term "慈" is often emphasized in the context of "慈孝" (filial piety), referring to the kindness parents show to their children, and the corresponding virtue of children showing filial piety to their parents. This differs slightly from the original Sanskrit focus on affectionate relationships among friends.


本学期云水书院的教育主题是「分享」,分享即是将美好的事物传递给别人,有一句有名的咖啡广告词:「好东西要和好朋友分享」,因而特别值得由朋友之间的慈来阐释这点,。
大家都知道,我们书院中,同学年纪分布遍及老中青,因此学长却可能会比学弟妹年轻许多。同学之间碰到这种情况,有时不好意思,便会互称对方学长。虽然这样看来,会有点乱了原本入学先后的长幼关系,但从另个角度来看,倒也不失为可发展出平等校园伦理的契机。毕竟学长对学弟妹的照顾,完全不应该变成一种上下的权力关系。

The educational theme for this semester at Yunshui Residential College is "Sharing." Sharing means passing on the goodness to others, as famously expressed in a coffee advertisement slogan: "Good things are meant to be shared with good friends." Therefore, it's particularly relevant to elaborate on this concept through the lens of kindness among friends.

As you all know, in our college, students come from various age groups, with both older and younger peers. Consequently, senior students may actually be much younger in age than their junior counterparts. In situations like this, students may sometimes feel awkward, leading to mutual address as "seniors (xue zhang) " 学长 out of respect. While this might seem to disrupt the traditional hierarchy based on age, it could also serve as an opportunity to foster a sense of equality in our campus ethics. After all, the care provided by senior students to their junior peers should never be turned into a hierarchical power dynamic.

所谓「闻道有先后,术业有专攻」,我们系上许多同学,在进入佛教学系之前,可能早就有许多专业能力,只是因为向往佛学,想要专研佛法,因此才前来就读。这些同学或许在佛学知识的学习经验是资浅的,但人生的阅历或者其他专业能力,比起许多学长却是深厚的。因此,彼此尊重互相学习,是书院生活的重要态度。

The saying goes, "There is a sequence to hearing the Way, and each profession has its specialization." Many of our fellow students in the department may have had various professional skills before entering the Buddhist Studies program. It's just that they were drawn to the study of Buddhism and chose to specialize in it. These students may have relatively limited experience in Buddhist studies, but their life experiences or other professional abilities may be profound compared to many senior students. Therefore, showing mutual respect and learning from each other is an important attitude in our academic community.

我期待每一位同学们,都可以不吝分享自己的知识与经验,将自己擅长的部分来与人分享。而知识、经验与能力的分享,既不会损减你原本所具有的,反而是当你越分享就越能深化、精练原本所拥有的。当人人都能分享,每个人都是学长,人人互相成就,书院生活也就会越来越具有善意与互相尊重的平等氛围。我们与其高谈布施之功德,倒不如由友朋之慈的分享做起,这也是我们的佛教行持课程中,何以会有「服务实作」这个部分的原因。

I look forward to each and every one of our students for not hesitating to share their knowledge and experiences, and to contribute what they excel in with other fields. Sharing knowledge, experiences, and abilities does not diminish what you already possess; instead, it deepens and refines your existing skills and knowledge. When everyone can share, everyone becomes a senior, and as we mutually uplift each other, our academic community will foster an atmosphere of goodwill and mutual respect.
Rather than just discussing the merits of generosity, let us start with the kindness of sharing among friends. This is also the reason why we have the "Service Practicum" component in our practice course.





郭朝顺院长谈「瞋心与忍辱行」
Anger and the Practice of Forbearance

文/郭朝顺院长
2023/05/24 (111-2 期末全院集合勉励话语)

诸位来到学院过团体生活,团体生活中难免有许多不如意,例如:与寮友生活作息相违,行堂典座组员常常迟到、未到或者拖累工作等等。前者我们除了彼此体谅,也应该要协商、沟通,设法取得共识;对于后者,则应提醒、规劝,让每个人将大众的事务放在心上,不要将服务大众之事,作成妨碍大众之事。
All of you at the college, in the course of experiencing communal living, have likely encountered difficulties, such as (i) roommates with conflicting living habits and (ii) cooking-serving rotation team members being late, absent, problematic, etc. For the former (i) kind of conflict, in addition to mutual empathic understanding, we should do our best to negotiate, communicate, and reach a consensus; for the latter (ii) kind of conflict, it is necessary to remind and encourage everyone to sincerely respect communal duties and to avoid degrading otherwise laudable service to the community into subpar disservice.

对不如意之事,人都难免会生起怨怼,乃至起了瞋心。就心理学的讲法,人不该压抑情绪,才不会产生过度的压抑,可是佛教却教我们修忍辱行,这二者之间会不会产生对立?
People inevitably develop resentment and even anger toward disagreeable situations. According to psychology, one should not repress emotions in order to avoid dysregulation, but Buddhism teaches us to practice forbearance. Are these two notions in conflict?

怨瞋有个基本特性,它总是在他人伤害或者侵犯我时出现。即便如路上的狗儿,只要觉得自己的地盘受到威胁,便会吠叫示威、露齿威胁,这便是捍卫自己地盘的本能。所以,如果「我」的界限很大,那你便会不时感到旁人时时在威胁、侵犯,也就时时会起瞋心;如果「我」的界限小一点,你便较不易感到被冒犯。到了「无我」时,便是完全不会因自觉被冒犯而生起瞋心。
Resentment, or anger, has a fundamental characteristic: it arises when we perceive others to harm 'me.'  Even street dogs that sense encroachment of their territory will bark and bare their teeth as an instinctive, primal defense response. Similarly, if the territory of your 'self' is very large, then you will constantly feel threatened or impinged and get angry often; if the territory of your 'self' is smaller, you are less likely to get offended. When there is 'no-self', there is no longer any possibility of anger arising from perceived intrusions.

可是还有另一种瞋心会出现的状况:虽然未必受到伤害或者威胁,但若有人可以归咎的话,自己便可以理直气壮地宣称自己没有错。这依然是一种自我保护的自然反应。由此来看,瞋心的出现始终和自我防卫之本能反应息息相关。
But there is another situation in which anger may arise: shifting blame to someone else (despite the absence of any actual harm or threat) allows us to self-righteously proclaim our own inculpability. Such scapegoating is yet another instinctual ego-preservation response. From this perspective, the emergence of anger is always closely related to ego-defensive instinct.

是以,心理学所谓的不要压抑情绪,便是不要否认自己有这样的本能,面对它才有可能超越它,更何况,旁人犯过却由我承担,确实是不公平的。所以,我认为忍辱行不是要人否定情绪,也不是要人忍受不公,而是要人认知情绪并且超越情绪的本能反应,超越自我防卫的心态,以坚毅之力承担在不善因缘状况下所产生的压力,同时处理好眼前的因缘。
As such, when psychology says not to suppress emotions, it is not to deny that we all have such instinct. Only by acknowledging our ego can we begin to transcend it. To take responsibility for others' faults is indeed unfair. So, I believe that the practice of forbearance does not require people to deny their emotions or endure senseless injustice, but rather to recognize their emotions and to transcend instinctive reactions, transcend our habitual self-defensive mentalities, and bear the stress of adverse situations with grit while skillfully handling the task at hand.

当他人犯错殃及我时,我可以对他表示对此行为的不认可,但不要仅停留在为自己打抱不平,或只是为自己了出一口气的层次,而是为了引导向善,为了利益大众。这时候,忍辱行除了坚毅的承担外,同时也就包含了,敢不敢将责备求善的规劝,用不带瞋心且是确能引导向善的方式,宣之于口的智慧与勇气之修练。
When others' mistakes implicate me, I can express my disapproval of their actions to them, but I don't have to stay simply at the level of vindicating myself from undue grievance or venting my frustration: I can have the greater motivation of wanting to positively influence others to bring out their innate potentials for virtue so as to ultimately benefit the greater community. At this point, the practice of forbearance includes not only tenacity and fortitude, but also the courage to do what is not easy but is right: to correct others so they can improve. To frankly communicate what is necessary without anger is a practice of wisdom and courage that can genuinely benefit others.

忍辱行不是要让自己成了受气包,令不正义不公平的事情恣意发生,忍辱行是为了令人有坚毅承担的力量,以及超越自卫本能的气度,并有着顶住压力的勇气,以及解决问题的慈悲与智慧。因此,忍辱行中的无我,便是彻底超越狭隘自我且劝导众生行善的修行,正如《法华经》常不轻菩萨之甘愿承担众生的詈骂永不退转一般。
The practice of forbearance is not about making ourselves into submissive enablers, pushovers, or martyrs and allowing injustice and wrongdoing to proliferate. The practice of forbearance is about inspiring ourselves and others to be strong and enduring, transcending our limited ego-preservation instincts, and developing the courage to withstand pressures as well as the compassion and wisdom to solve problems. Therefore, the practice of egolessness, which underlies the practice of forbearance, completely transcends ego's limitations and exhorts everyone towards their innate potentials for virtue, just as in the Lotus Sūtra, the Bodhisatva Sadāparibhūta (Never Disparaging) never regressed in his willingness to honor sentient beings despite their constant disrespect of him.

佛经中忍辱仙人的故事十分有名,不过,正如我以往说过,佛经不能只从字面上读,大家若依上述的说法来读,也许会读出不一样的内涵。祝大家吉祥如意。
The story of Kṣāntirṣi (who endured senseless mutilation of his body) in the Mahāyānasūtras is quite famous, but as I have said before, the Buddhist sūtras cannot be read only literally. If you read with the above-stated points in mind, you might understand another level of meaning. I wish you all the best!




我们为什么选择艰难的路—
谈谈佛教学系行门书院教育的理念

文/郭朝顺院长
2022/3/3 (期初全院集合勉励话语)

寒假在家中看了一部日剧:「先に生まれただけの仆」(中译:不过是先出生的我);日文汉字的「先生」的就是老师的意思,所以这剧名在玩一个双关语的梗:先生(老师)不过是先出生的人罢了。剧中描述一个原本的企业集团菁英,因公司内斗,而被派去当集团所属的中学校长。虽然他不懂教育,但却因为他的热情,感动了校内原本冷眼旁观、等看笑话的老师们,进而感动学生,最后逆转了学校的现况。

剧中最令人热血的是,学生们因为感受到老师们的热情与用心,主动到校外去向人推荐自己学校,邀请初中生及家长们前来参加学校说明会,并展现出充满自信的节目表演,最后合唱校歌那一幕,感动了全体师生及参观的学生及家长们。当我看到这一幕时,我就跟我太太说:如果学生没有认同老师以及学校,是不可能作这些事的。然而,这样主动的热情,我却在佛教学系的同学身上看到许多次,而且不限于招生。

我曾多次和同学们到全台各道场作招生说明,由同学现身说法,告诉大众他们在佛教学系的学习经验与感动;我也看到许多同学,即便课业忙碌,他们还是愿意拨出时间,为系上制作各种宣传海报、文宣;我也看到明明行堂、典座才忙完的同学,因为为街友送暖活动,未稍事休息便一起冲到台北或者罗东,直到深夜。我也常常听到学校各单位夸奖我们的学生认真主动,因此乐意找系上学生工读;最近也听到回山实习的单位主管告诉我们,欢迎同学毕业后,回去他们单位任职。这便是我们为何选择一艰难的道路,坚持实施行门书院教育的原因。
现今社会流行的常是「轻松自在」的道路,讲求「作自己」;在佛陀的教诲之中,却认为一切痛苦的根源,就在「我执」,因此佛教与世间法在这一点上,便似乎会产生对立。不过,如果深入来理解的话,我们应该会知道「作自己」与「去我执」并不见得会对立。会对立的是,把「轻松自在」当作是「自己」,却没想到,想要「轻松自在」的念头,很可能是因为自己的业习,诸如:不想受到规矩束缚、不想听人教导规劝、不想自我精进、不想为人服务、不想多事麻烦、不想要改变等等。当一个人不作任何改变,自然是「轻松自在」地「作自己」。

如各位所知,书院教育是与行门的「佛教行持」课结合在一起,因此我将之合称「行门书院教育」。这个课程共分成四个部分:1佛门基本知识(包括佛教礼仪、法会实务、禅堂规约、基础禅修等);2修持实践(共住、共食、共学与日常作务,以及禅净法门);3生活文化讲座(各种演讲、社团活动、工作坊);4服务实作(系学会、研究生学会、新闻公关、图书管理、网页维护等各组)。我是这个设计的始作俑者,因此可以说明这课程设计的基本精神。
这虽只是每学期一学分的院级必修课程,但几乎动用了全系的老师,不论规划或者执行,都是全系老师共同参与的。因为我们认为,除了书本的学问外,于事中磨錬出关怀他人、为人服务的态度,以及合作共学、相互成就的能力,这是教育中尤为重要且能受用一生之事。而且这也符合星云大师所常强调的「我在众中」,百丈禅师「一日不作一日不食」,以及菩萨道之「慈悲利生」的精神。

教育不是只为了填塞知识或训练谋生的技术而已,对佛教教育而言更是如此,故尤其重要的是,先求正知正见的养成,如此才能运用所学来利益众生。诸位都是佛教学系的学生,这一点应该是很容易理会的。尤当诸位身为佛教徒,受持了佛教戒律,即当知戒律以及一切规矩,都是为了调伏自己往习既有的业力之身,因而主动持守的。由于业身的净化,故我们可以逐渐获得定力,有了定力便应开发智慧。这戒定慧三学,是佛陀自古传下的解脱法门,我们便是将这个法门,用来设计行门书院教育的种种制度。目的便是要,透过生活修持实践之遵守,先学会行堂典座以及种种作务的规矩,然后不畏事繁而稳定自己的心行;在服务实作中,学会如何处理事务的各种能力与智慧;生活讲座是用以开拓生活及生命的视野,社团活动则是用以涵养自己的品味、眼光与胸襟;凡此诸种种,也皆可与佛门知识,以及系上老师所教授的诸部经论相互印证。

各位同学应该知道,学习佛法是艰难的,且要殊胜因缘才能获得机会。各位既然当初选择成为佛教学系的学生,想必当时也都知道,我们有种种共住、共食、共学的规矩,现在再将这些规矩的设计原因说明清楚,是想让各位了解,所有的设计都不是为了为难各位,减省经费或劳务人力,而是为了令诸位道业增长。如果大家更了解教育的设计用心,便可以用学习的心态,去体验在每个行动中的心行变化,从而更坚定作为修行人的自己(而不是轻松自在的自己)的愿行。

大学部的有位同学,上学期作了一件令我相当感动的学习实验,他试着要练习我在教授《华严经.净行品》中所说的,菩萨应时时以众生为念,因此试着在作任何事时,尽量以「当愿众生」来作发心。经过了一段时间的练习后,他告诉我,虽然他无法时时作到「当愿众生」的发心,但这个修持实验已改变了他,甚至救了他,令他更勇敢主动、也更乐观地承担生活以及工作,也因此他参与了以前不敢参与的系学会工作,乐意为系上同学服务。听到他的例子,印证了「先生不过是先出生而已」的说法,而这也是我们何以选择这条艰难道路,坚持行门书院教育的理由。期待我们师生之间、同学之间,能够成为彼此的善知识,永远共学互成、常处众中,精进彼此之道业慧命。




【菩萨行与工作禅】


文/郭朝顺院长(任期110学年度-)
 
佛光山教团无论僧俗,给人的第一印象便是,每个人总是自动自发、辛勤忙碌地工作,为佛教、为利益众生而工作。自从2016年我来到佛光大学佛教学系任教后,也在佛教学系的教育中看到这个精神,让我印象十分深刻,也深深觉得这是我们能够经提供给学生一生受用的教育,这可能比起知识教育更为影响深远。

目前一般的大学教育,虽然也会倡导品德教育,但困难的是,品德很难通过知识灌输、道德推理来教导,而是必须经由日常生活中对于可被视为典范的人物,借由身教来令学生感悟,这才能让学生自动自发,由内而外真诚地实践道德。然而,一般大学教授固然是知识菁英、专家学者,但并不是圣人,也从来没有被训练如何进行品德教育,幸而佛教学系有来自佛光山的生活老师,将佛光山的工作实践态度带入佛教学系的教育之中,而且总是以身作则地示范如何行堂典座、如何应对进退、如何发心服务,于是此一身教为主的生活教育精神遂得以在佛教学系的教育中逐渐紮根展现。

佛光山努力工作的道风,是自唐代百丈怀海禅师「一日不作一日不息」的农禅修行方法而来,这和崇玄论道或者以清寂之美为悟的道风不同,其重点便在于对于烦杂的事务,或者众人避之不及的卑贱劳务,要毫不迟疑、挽起衣䄂地「作事去!」
「作事去!」我也将之称为「工作禅」。有人或许轻视这个说法,以为没有高深内涵,或者以为这是为让学生免费劳务的借口,或者以为这是领取系上佛学菁英奖学金的交换代价;可是若就佛教教义来看,「作事去!」正是把济度一切众生的菩萨行,在生活的时时处处当下实践,因为对菩萨而言,如果连生命都愿意布施给众生而心生欢喜,何以却连眼前的工作却不愿认真去做?

品德教育是一种经由熏习而内化的过程,系上教授们,绝不是完全䄂手不管品德,而是教授的工作便是认真教授自己的专业知识,精进自身的研究,认真辅导每个学生,以提升学生求学态度以及专业知识,进而协助学生改善未来的生活与生命。当我们的教授与生活导师每日致力于教导学生的工作,也时时以学生为念,这也就体现了「作事去!」的精神。

然而,教育现场中,师生都不是圣人,故不论教育者或者学习者,都会有感到挫折的时刻,是以工作禅的精神,即要我们在因为挫折而兴起烦恼时,观照自心放下烦恼,继续努力工作,并求不忘当初从事教育或者前来学习的初心;校园之中,师生若能彼此包容,互为增上,自然可以形成一良好的学风。

工作禅的修行有两个简单要点:一是面对工作,当下提起;一是因工作而生的烦恼,立即放下。如果我们时时皆能如此,便是在工作中行禅。当然,这时也切莫忘记,一切工作皆是为了以利益包含自己在内的一切众生而作,利益众生即为供养未来诸佛的菩萨行,而大众和合增上方能严净此土成就佛土。《维摩经》中舍利弗要经由佛力才看到佛土本清净,但是以工作禅的角度来说,便会要舍利弗「做事去!」